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The unit of potential difference is the Volt (V), which is equal to a Joule per Coulomb (J/C). A voltage source is a device used in electric circuits that has a fixed potential difference between its ends. A voltage source can be a battery, or another source of direct current with a fixed potential difference. 1 has the largest potential difference across it. B) R 3 has the largest potential difference across it. C) The potential difference across each resistor is the same. D) The power dissipated by each resistor is the same. E) If the resistors are made of the same material, and have the same cross-sectional area, then R 1 is the longest. 22. Electric Potential of a Charged Plane Sheet. Consider an inﬁnite plane sheet perpendicular to the x-axis at x = 0. The sheet is uniformly charged with charge per unit area ˙. Electric ﬁeld (magnitude): E = 2ˇkj˙j = j˙j 20. Direction: away from (toward) the sheet if ˙ > 0 (˙ < 0). The SI unit of potential difference is the same as that for e.m.f., i.e. the volt. We define the volt as follows: The potential difference (p.d.) between two points in a conductor is 1 volt if 1 joule of energy is converted from electrical to other forms when 1 coulomb of positive charge flows through it. Electrostatic Force and Electric Charge Electrostatic Force (charges at rest ): • Electrostatic force can be attractive • Electrostatic force can be repulsive • Electrostatic force acts through empty space • Electrostatic force much stronger than gravity • Electrostatic forces are inverse square law forces ( proportional to 1/r 2) The electric potential difference between two locations is one volt if it takes one joule of work to move one coulomb of charge from one location to the other. electric field. Electric potential is a way to explain a "difficult" vector field in terms of an "easy" scalar field.